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This section provides some fortuehr information about different things you will find on this website.


Life course sections

Each life course section includes a summary of the core health issues for that life phase.. These sections are reviewed approximatly every three months to ensure the narrative on the pages remains current.

Each life course section includes links to the most relevant data sets and documents that discuss the core health issues in more detail. If you would like too know more about any of the core health and wellbeing issues, you are encouraged to access the data sets and supporting documents.

The life course sections are intended to be easy to read and to interpret. However, there are a few definations you might find helpful.

  • Incidence rates and ratios: Some of the data sets report their health topic's incidence rates. A common defination of incidence is 'the number of new cases per population at risk in any given time period'. To allow the JSNA to be easily understood and interpreted by the majority of people, incidence rates are referred to as 'the number of new cases each year' or 'rate of death' or 'rate of admission' on this website.
  • Prevalence: Some of the data sets report their health topic using point prevalence. The defination of point prevalence is 'the proportion of the popuation that has a condition at a specific point in time'. For ease of interpretation, the prevalence statements are written as 'the proportion of people who' in this JSNA.
  • Proxy indicator:A small number of health topics are measured using proxy measures. A proxy measure is 'an indicrect measure of the desired outcomes which itself is strongly correclated to that outcome'. It is common practice to use proxy measures when the outcome measure itself is difficult to observe or difficult to reliably count.


Comparator Areas

To help you interpret how well York is preforming, the data for York in each life course section is described in relation to comparator areas. The three main types of comparator areas are used:

  • National: This is used to describe York in comparison to the average (mean) of all other local authorities that data is available for. Sometimes this is all local authorities in England (this happens if the data comes from Public Health England) and sometimes this is the whole of the United Kingdom (this happens if the data comes from the Office of National Statistics).
  • Regional: This is used to describe York in comparison to the other local authorities in Yorkshire and Humber. There are 15 local authorities in the region; (Barnsley, Bradford, Calderdale, Doncaster, East Riding of Yorkshire, Kingston upon Hull, Kirklees, Leeds, North East Lincolnshire, North Yorkshire, Rotherham, Sheffield, Wakefield, and York).
  • Statistical Neighbours: This is used to describe York in comparison to the other local authorities in England which are considered to be most similiar to York. Similarity is judged on a number of factors including the population, the geography, and the economic factors.  These are known as the CIPFA statistical neighbours. For this reason, stasticial neighbours comparisons often provide a more valid comparator set for York. There are 16 local authorities who are statistical neighbours to York; (Cheshire West and Chester, Warwickshire, Warrington, Stockport, Cheshire East, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Bracknell Forest, Central Bedfordshire, Worcestershire).


Links to the data and documents

There is a lot of information in this website. To keep the main pages of this JSNA as clear and consise as possible, the links to the supporting data and supporting documents are held in seperate pages. This includes links to the raw data, maps, survey results, reports and strategy documents.


Topic specific needs assessments

In addition to the life course sections there are a number of topic specific needs assessments attached to the York JSNA. The topic specific needs assessments consider a health topic or population group in significant detail. Each is a one-off piece of work and is not routinely reviewed or updated.



The York JSNA is designed to be a living document. There will always be opportunities to improve or develop it. If you would like to share your feedback with us, please contact us [email protected]


This page was last updated on 10 May 2023
This page will be reviewed by 10 May 2024