The latest data on life expectancy in relation to deprivation is contained in the Public Health Outcomes Framework (PHOF) in the overarching indicators section. Provisional Public Health Outcomes Framework (PHOF) figures show that for males, life expectancy for York has increased slightly to 79.6 years and that for females life expectancy has also increased slightly to 83.2 years. However, a more in-depth look at life expectancy shows that this gain is not shared across the social spectrum.
Source: Public Health England. Public Health Outcomes Framework.
During 2009-2011, the England average gap in life expectancy between most and least deprived deciles was 9.65 years for males and 7.18 years for females. Deciles split the population into ten even groups and allow comparison between outcomes. In this instance, the most deprived decile refers to the 10% of York’s population who are most deprived and the least deprived decile refers to the 10% of York’s population who are most affluent.
York’s life expectancy gap between most deprived and least deprived is smaller (i.e. better) for both men and women when compared to the national average. It is 7.2 years for males and 5.9 for females. This means that a York resident living in an area of relatively less deprivation can expect to live between 5.9 – 7.2 years longer than a York resident living in the most deprived area, depending on gender.
Because of differences in the range of deprivation seen in York when compared to England as a whole, the local figures are not directly comparable to national figures and can not be directly benchmarked.
For reference, however, the most recent national figures indicate a reduction in the life expectancy gap and are now given as 9.2 years for males and 6.2 years for females for the 2010-2012 period.
Life expectancy differences between richest and poorest for 2010-2012 suggests an improved (shortened) life expectancy gap for men in York (8.5 years in 2009-2011 down to 7.2 years) but a worse (increased) life expectancy gap for women in York (5.6 years in 2009-2011 up to 5.9 years).
Previous data (Marmot Indicators for Local Authorities in England, 2012) relating to the period 2006–2010 show that York figures then were a 9.7 year gap for males (against the England average of 8.9) and a 5.1 year gap for females (against the England average of 5.9).
The following charts show the trends in life expectancy for England and for York. Nationally, the gap in life expectancy between richest and poorest is reducing for both males and females.
Locally, the gap is reducing for males but increasing for females.
National trend of female life expectancy gap between most and least deprived
Source: Public Health England (2014) Public Health Outcome Profile (0.2i Slope index of inequality in life expectancy at birth based on national deprivation deciles within England (Female))
Local trend of female life expectancy gap between most and least deprived
Source: Public Health England (2014) Public Health Outcome Profile (0.2iii Slope index of inequality in life expectancy at birth within English local authorities, based on local deprivation deciles within each area (Female)).
National trend of male life expectancy gap between most and least deprived
Source: Public Health England (2014) Public Health Outcome Profile (0.2i Slope index of inequality in life expectancy at birth based on national deprivation deciles within England (Male))
Local trend of male life expectancy gap between most and least deprived
Source: Public Health England (2014) Public Health Outcome Profile (0.2iii Slope index of inequality in life expectancy at birth within English local authorities, based on local deprivation deciles within each area (Male)).
Analysis of local data
When considering the gender specific data since 2005, the trend of life expectancy inequality for females can be seen to be worsening whereas for males the trend is improving.
The following 2 charts provide some more detailed analysis of the data around the gap in life expectancy. The vertical bars in the centre of each blue block in the graphs below represent the confidence intervals of the life expectancy inequality data.
Confidence intervals tell us the maximum and minimum possible measure for this item. This means that the actual data could fall anywhere between the two end measures that the line gives. So, for female life expectancy between 2006–2008, the actual life expectancy difference could be anywhere between 1.4 years to 7 years.
The chart below shows the years of life which could be gained if the population living in the most deprived areas had the same health outcome as the most affluent (Public Health England, 2013).
For example, if you are male, from a deprived background and suffer from coronary heart disease, you could expect to live 1.5 years longer if your health outcomes matched those seen in the least deprived areas.
Recently released Public Health England ‘The Segment Tool’ data gives a breakdown of the difference in life expectancy for particular disease types between the most and least deprived areas in York.
Provisional data within this tool shows the life expectancy gap by the number of excess deaths in the most deprived areas by cause of death.
For males, circulatory and respiratory diseases are the largest causes of life expectancy gaps between richest and poorest.
For females, respiratory diseases and cancer are the largest causes of life expectancy gaps between richest and poorest.
Source: The Segment Tool
The above table provides more detail about the number of excess deaths seen in the most deprived areas of York. The causes of death by disease type are given as total deaths for those living in the poorest area and are shown as the number of excess deaths seen in the poorest area when compared to deaths in the richest areas of York.
For males, between 2009–2011, the number of excess deaths attributed to living in the most deprived areas was 232. The main causes of these deaths were cancers other than lung cancer and coronary heart disease.
For females, between 2009–2011, the number of excess deaths attributed to living in the most deprived areas was 165. The main causes of these deaths were chronic obstructive airways diseases, mental and behavioural disorders, and lung cancer.
The full life expectancy segmentation tool can be accessed at http://www.lho.org.uk/LHO_Topics/Analytic_Tools/Segment/TheSegmentTool.aspx
City of York Council Ward profiles give ward based life expectancy information for males and females within that ward. Analysis of this data highlights the difference in health outcomes between the richest and poorest areas of York.
The table below summarises this information (for males only). This has not been calculated for females because there was no variation in life expectancy by ward recorded for females.
|Male Life Expectancy at ward level compared to City of York male life expectancy with ward deprivation scores (2006-2010)|
|Ward||Male ward based life expectancy (2006 - 2010)||City of York male life expectancy (2006 - 2010)||Male ward based life expectancy difference to City of York life expectancy||Ward deprivation score (lower score = less deprived)||Ward deprivation rank (1 = least deprived)|
|Haxby and Wigginton||81.7||79.6||2.1||4.65||2|
|Rural West York||83.5||79.6||3.9||5.23||5|
|Dringhouses and Woodthorpe||80.8||79.6||1.2||10.91||13|
|Huntington and New Earswick||79.1||79.6||-0.5||12.54||14|
The correlation is strongest the nearer to 1 or -1 that the score is. The life expectancy by ward deprivation shows a very strong correlation of (-0.9) between life expectancy and deprivation.
Public Health England (2014) Public Health Outcomes Framework
Public Health Outcomes Framework
Public Health England (2012) Marmot Indicators for Local Authorities
Marmot Indicators for Local Authorities
Public Health England (2011) Health Inequalities Intervention Tool
Health Inequalities Intervention Tool
Public Health England (2008) Health Inequalities Intervention Tool for All Areas
Health Inequalities Intervention Tool for All Areas
Public Health England (2014) The Segment Tool - Segmenting life expectancy gaps by cause of deaths
Segmenting life expectancy gaps by cause of deaths
Wikipedia (2014) Correlation and dependence
Correlation and dependence