Circulatory diseases include heart disease, stroke and diseases of the heart valves or the heart rhythm which accounted for approximately one third of all deaths in England and Wales in 2010 (Office for National Statistics, 2010).
Since 1995, death rates due to circulatory diseases have been dropping in York, and were below the England average in the York Joint Strategic Needs Assessment for 2008 (City of York Council, 2008). Risk factors for circulatory disease are multiple, and include age, gender, family history, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, smoking and diabetes amongst others.
There is a clear gradient across the deprivation quintiles for mortality from circulatory diseases with a rate of 213 per 100,000 population in the most deprived quintile, and 131 per 100,000 population in the least deprived.
For the 2007-2009 period, the overall mortality rate for men was significantly lower than the England average for the same period, but there was no significant difference for women (Health & Social Care Information Centre).
Coronary Heart Disease
Modelled estimates suggests that coronary heart disease prevalence for York in 2011 should be in the region of 4.72% (Public Health England, 2011); however the recorded prevalence for 2010-2011 based on data routinely collected by general practitioners gives a figure of 3.5% compared to the England average of 3.4% (Public Health England). Both of these figures should be used with caution as the modelled prevalence is an estimate of the actual prevalence, and the prevalence based on general practitioner data is a crude rate and does not take into consideration the age or gender structure of the population.